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3.10 疑问代词

     1) 疑问代词在句中起名词词组的作用,用来构成疑问句。疑问代词有下列几个:
      指 人: who, whom, whose
      指 物: what
      既可指人又可指物: which

     2) 疑问代词在句中应位于谓语动词之前,没有性和数的变化,除who之外也没有格的变化。what, which, whose还可作限定词。试比较:

     疑问代词:Whose are these books on the desk? 
           桌上的书是谁的?
          What was the directional flow of U. S. territorial expansion?
           美国的领土扩张是朝哪个方向的?
     限定词: Whose books are these on the desk?
           桌上的书是谁的?
          What events led to most of the east of the Mississippi River becoming part of the United States?  哪些事件使密西西比河以东的大部分土地归属于美国?

     说明1:
       无论是做疑问代词还是限定词,which 和 what 所指的范围不同。what所指的范围是无限的,而which则指在一定的范围内,例如:
      Which girls do you like best?
       你喜欢哪几个姑娘?
      What girls do you like best?
       你喜欢什么样的姑娘?

     说明2:
       Whom是who的宾格,在书面语中,它作动词宾语或介词宾语,在口语中作宾语时,可用who代替,但在介词后只能用whom, 例如:
      Who(m) did you meet on the street?
        你在街上遇到了谁?(作动词宾语)
      Who(m) are you taking the book to?
        你要把这书带给谁?(作介词宾语,置句首)
      To whom did you speak on the campus?
        你在校园里和谁讲话了?(作介词宾语,置介词 后,不能用who取代。)

     说明3:
       疑问代词用于对介词宾语提问时,过去的文体中介词和疑问代词通常一起放在句首,现代英语中,疑问代词在句首,介词在句未,例如:
     For what do most people live and work?
        大部分人生活和工作的目的是什么?(旧文体)
     What are you looking for?
        你在找什么?(现代英语)

     说明4:
       疑问代词还可引导名词性从句,例如:
     I can't make out what he is driving at.
      我不知道他用意何在。
     Can you tell me whose is the blue shirt on the bed? 
      你能告诉我床上的蓝衬衣是谁的吗?
     Much of what you say I agree with, but I cannot go all the way with you.
      你说的我大部分同意,但并不完全赞同。

上一条3.9 指示代词 下一条3.11 关系代词

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